Author Topic: Pyrimidine dimers are a special type of DNA  (Read 282 times)

sonyaany

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Pyrimidine dimers are a special type of DNA
« on: July 02, 2015, 09:08:40 AM »
Pyrimidine dimers are a special type of DNA damage found within the many layers of the skin. It is a leading cause of skin cancer and is caused by UV radiation or UV light. UV light is a type of energy, which can initiate the fusion of two pyrimidine nucleotide bases. Two pyrimidine bases fuse together by the joining of the free 6' carbon of the oakley outlet pyrimidine base to form a carbon double, covalent bond with the 4' carbon on the neighboring same pyrimidine.

This type of DNA lesion is referred to as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. This type of DNA damage is detrimental to the DNA by means of blocking the process  of DNA replication via inhibiting the engagement of DNA polymerase3; which reads the genetic code and matches complimentary bases to create a daughter strand.

There are two types of Pyrimidine dimers, thymine dimers and cytosine dimers. The more common of the two is thymine dimers but many cytosine dimers have formed as well. These two types of CPDs (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) cause mutations in the DNA by inferring with cellular replication. The mutation is formed when DNA polymerase3 reads the genetic code and identifies a problem. When these CPS form, the sugar backbone's phosphor diester linkage is too close together and causes a kink which DNA polymerase3 detects.

When DNA polymerase corrects this mistake, with the help of repair enzymes, it will sometimes mismatch a guanine with an adenine or opposite. This can oakley uk lead to harmful base pair mutations when the code is replicated and translated into a protein. Other cases of this mutation may cause DNA polymerase to stop functioning and stop reading the genetic code all together because the kink is too large to continue. This can lead to an injurious mutation forming within a gene such as the p53 tumor suppressor, where its translated protein structure is not functional, parts of cell growth would be disadvantageous; if this specific protein where to be damaged, it could easily cause cancer.

These mutations however are usually corrected and will not affect the produced DNA strand. These corrections are possible because there are many enzymes dedicated to this single task of DNA repair. Specifically within the skin, there are many enzymes which will function optimally when wavelengths at a specific absorption occur. When they are activated at this time, their main task is to find DNA damage and repair it. When the damage does not get repaired however, it can lead to many long term skin cancers such as melanoma. DNA damage has very negative effects on the cell, overall and within point mutations which can greatly affect protein oakley uk structure.

chenjinbei

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