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Messages - Yumy

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cb|GeSHi-mod / Bonding Tapes: A Strong Option for Many Applications
« on: October 12, 2017, 11:39:19 AM »
Fasteners and liquid adhesives are not going to disappear, but for many applications their replacements are already here. Bonding tapes, used in products that require assembly, mounting, fastening, or sealing provide high bonding strength and can even compensate for different thermal expansions and contractions between parts — helping to maintain bonds during varying temperature cycles.
Bonding tape is often used in place of mechanical fasteners (rivets, bolts, screws and welding materials) because of its high strength, ability to withstand a high level of vibration and its durable seals against environmental conditions. Compared to fasteners, bonding tapes are faster and easier to apply, obsoletes the need for drilled holes which could cause leaks, and require much less labor time and cost to apply.
Foam bonding tapes are giving design engineers more solutions for demanding assembly needs than ever before. And the best foam bonding tapes are only available from the world-leading Saint-Gobain Foams and Tapes.

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Shi Xingpei isTBB bearing senior Technical Consultant and resercher-level senior engineer which was graduated from  Tsinghua University and worked in bearing industry since 1970s. Proficient in bearing production and well-know bearing applications, Shi Xingpei offers premium bearing quality solutions for customers.
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Site and MOD Comments / Toyota Tests Hybrid Power Generation System
« on: October 12, 2017, 11:28:56 AM »
A hybrid power generation system combining solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbines is being trialed by Toyota Motor Corporation at its Motomachi Plant in Toyota City, Japan. The pressurized combined power generation system was jointly developed by Toyota, Toyota's subsidiary, Toyota Turbine and Systems Inc., as well as Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Ltd.
The trial operations will utilize the system as an internal power generation facility, with the aim of testing and evaluating the system's energy efficiency, performance, and durability.Schematic of the hybrid power generation system. (Source: Toyota Motor Corporation)Schematic of the hybrid power generation system. (Source: Toyota Motor Corporation)
Natural gas reforming within the fuel cell yields hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Electricity is generated in the fuel cell through a chemical reaction between the hydrogen and carbon monoxide with the oxygen contained in the compressed air delivered by the micro gas turbine. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide not consumed by the fuel cell is delivered to the micro gas turbines together with heat and high pressure exhaust that is produced during power generation.
The 250 kW two-stage power generation system achieves a generating efficiency of 55%.
The scheme is being implemented as part of the "Technological Demonstration for targeting Mass-production of Pressurized Hybrid Power Generation System Consisting of Cylindrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and a Micro Gas Turbine" of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization.

General SMF discussion / New Sensor Increases Smartwatch Battery Life
« on: October 12, 2017, 11:25:09 AM »
According to the International Data Corporation, nearly 50 million smartwatches were sold worldwide in 2016, and this number is expected to grow to 150 million by 2021. The range of features — such as step counters, altimeters and GPS — requires sensors with varying energy needs. The most power-hungry function — the heart-rate monitor — consumes almost 80 percent of battery power.
A new generation of sensors developed by ActLight, a startup based in EPFL Innovation Park, can measure the wearer's pulse with the same precision as current smartwatches, while consuming one-fifth of the energy. These sensors have been tested by Maher Kayal's laboratory as part of a CTI (Commission for Technology and Innovation) project, and they are now ready to be used in smartwatches. Thanks to this breakthrough, ActLight was named one of the best Swiss cleantech startups in 2015.
The secret behind the energy-saving sensors lies in signal processing. In order to grasp how the company's unique 'dynamic photodiode' sensor works, we must first understand how sensors in most smartwatches currently work: two diodes located on the back of the device — nestled against the wrist — emit light that penetrates the upper layers of the skin, and blood flow determines how much light is reflected back. A sensor placed between the diodes detects these light waves and transforms the information into electrical current, which is then translated into the pulse displayed on the watch.
Instead of converting the light into a current and then measuring the current's amplitude, ActLight's dynamic photodiode sensors turn the current back into light. The sensors use the pulse of light to identify the moment at which the current is triggered. The result is a small reduction in energy consumption with every heartbeat, but repeated more than 50,000 times per day it adds up to considerable energy savings.
ActLight is in talks with major semiconductor makers and is about to sell the rights to mass produce its innovative sensors. The new sensors are also attractive in terms of cost savings: According to researchers, they are less expensive to produce because they do not require as much silicon for the same level of manufacturing.
Other applications are also being considered, such as gesture control for video gamers, as well as in solar cells and data transfer.

cb|GeSHi-mod / SKF Corrosion-Resistant Spherical Roller Bearings
« on: September 26, 2017, 11:07:20 AM »
SKF is manufacturing the first-ever corrosion-resistant steel spherical roller bearings, available in nine standard sizes. These bearings are manufactured from High Nitrogen Corrosion Resistant (HNCR) stainless steel, which has been in development for the past eight years. Although HNCR is still expensive, it is the first stainless steel that is hardenable to 58 HRC, the same degree as 52100 high carbon bearing steel.
The standard size line of HNCR spherical roller bearings are primarily targeted for use in the pulp and paper industry for wet section felt rolls, black liquor applications and wire return applications. Unplanned shutdowns of a paper mill due to bearing failure can be as expensive as $25,000 per hour. According to industry averages, the typical paper mill has two four-hour, unplanned shutdowns per year due to bearing failure in felt rolls. This translates to an annual cost of up to $200,000. The life expectation and corrosion resistance of an HNCR bearing is far superior to that of a 440C stainless bearing, which results in reduced unplanned downtime and maintenance costs and increased productivity.
In addition to pulp and paper mill applications, HNCR bearings  have been custom engineered for corrosive applications such as ice cream manufacturing and pharmaceutical sanitizer racks.
The first HNCR bearings to be used in production have been running for over seven years at a paper mill in Florida. The typical life expectancy in this application is 36 months. The bearings were inspected after five years of continual service for inspection and showed no signs of service distress.
A martensitic through-hardened stainless steel, HNCR can also be case-hardened. HNCR also provides superior corrosion resistance over and above that of 440C stainless steel due to the introduction of nitrogen. Other bearing steel alternatives, such as 52100 and 440C stainless steel, contain no nitrogen at all. HNCR also offers greater material "cleanliness" and a more homogeneous structure compared to 440C.

Site and MOD Comments / Keep Your Tilt Pad Bearings Running Cool
« on: September 26, 2017, 11:03:22 AM »
 Waukesha Bearing Waukesha Bearing has developed a new cooling technology for tilt pad bearings"called trailing edge cooling, which increases heat transfer and expands bearing operating limits.
The patented design features a spray bar to deliver cooling flow, which is located adjacent to the bearing pad trailing edge. The pads also contain grooves in the trailing edge face, which increase the surface area and allow the lubricant to penetrate deeper into the edge pad, further enhancing the cooling effect. The lubricant supplied via the spray bar is part of the lubricant being supplied to lubricate the bearing for hydrodynamic operation.
Trailing edge cooling technology is used on Waukesha's Maxalign® tilt pad bearings, which are ideal large rotating equipment. Maxalign bearings feature reduced oil flow and power loss in addition to a hydrostatic lift design that produces a reliable shaft lift while limiting temperature increases. The cooling edge technology further helps to limit the temperature increase at speeds up to 100 m/s and 3 MPa, without reducing thebearing life  or safety margin.
Trailing edge cooling technology may be applied to any radial or thrust pad bearing that runs at higher speeds and loads.

cb|Emailogin / SKF installs magnetic bearings at Åsgard
« on: September 26, 2017, 11:00:40 AM »
SKF supplied magnetic bearings for use in the world’s first subsea gas compression system at the Åsgard gas field off the Norwegian coast.
As part of the subsea gas compression system, the bearings will contribute to recovering additional gas volumes from depleting gas fields as well as extending the lifetime of those gas fields, which would otherwise be prematurely closed.
Traditionally, gas compression is made on platforms. For Åsgard, Statoil and its partners made the decision to locate it on the seabed, near the wellheads, to maximize gas recovery and therefore prolong significantly the production lifetime of this gas field.
SKF’s magnetic bearing technology was a key enabler to achieve this autonomous deepwater subsea gas compression system. The bearing simplifies the system architecture by removing the need for components such as lubricating oil, seals and gearbox. The magnetic bearings  are integrated inside the compressor casing, preventing gas leakage and allowing a smaller environmental footprint. Furthermore, the magnetic bearings are frictionless, enabling higher rotation speeds, leading to smaller compressor modules and ultimately lighter processing plant infrastructure.
“This is a great achievement after five years of intense development, qualification and tests,” Jérémy Lepelley, SKF Magnetic Mechatronics (S2M) subsea manager said. “Compressing gas on a subsea installation is a significant step forward for the oil and gas sector. SKF magnetic bearings enable the gas compression system to be completely oil-free, exceptionally reliable.”
SKF was awarded the contract in May 2011 by MAN Diesel & Turbo, the OEM of the 11.5 MW electric-motor-driven centrifugal compressor running on SKF’s magnetic bearings.
The mechanical modules were assembled in the compressor frames in 2013, following the validation of the technology by Statoil, and the two units have since then undergone “burn-in” time, accumulating more than 2000 hours each, prior to installation subsea.
In addition to supplying the magnetic bearings, SKF has also provided a control system, which enables remote operation of the magnetic bearing system. This facilitates the effective and efficient use of the magnetic bearings, from initial commissioning to safe daily operation and maintenance planning.
The magnetic bearings have been tested and qualified in wet gas conditions similar to those found in the North Sea, ensuring the bearings deliver the same high performance in subsea applications as they do in theory. In addition, the magnetic bearing control system has been tailored for use in harsh marine environments. This has been achieved through a special redundancy design in which components are assembled in an enclosure that can withstand subsea conditions.
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cb|Emailogin / Additive Manufacturing Meets Bespoke Automaking
« on: September 20, 2017, 10:37:55 AM »
Northwest of London lies the Malverns, an area of villages, grassland and hills that is one of England’s foremost areas of natural beauty. That image of Englishness rooted in the landscape fits well with what is perhaps the area's best-known engineering operation, Morgan Motor Co. Founded more than a century ago, Morgan produces around 1,000 high-performance sports cars a year from a collection of red brick buildings in the town of Malvern Link.
The vehicles are “coach built”, meaning that they are assembled by hand according to individual customer specification. There are no robots or conveyor belt anywhere on the site. Many of the aluminum body panels are manually formed by workers who literally hammer them into shape.
Design and prototyping technology enable Morgan to maintain its approach to automaking.Design and prototyping technology enable Morgan to maintain its approach to automaking.Moreover, beneath the vehicle’s body shell lies a material that is usually found only in cockpit trim—wood. Every car has a framework made from English ash wood that sits above the chassis and to which the vehicle’s bodywork is attached.
The fact that the cars themselves are old-fashioned in appearance (perhaps evoking something from the 1930s) only adds to the impression that the vehicles do not embody modern technology.
However, in many ways that perception is false. For a start, some major sub-systems are sourced externally from mainstream companies. BMW and Ford are engine suppliers, for example. Similarly, gearboxes are standard bought-in units. Chassis are also fabricated externally although to Morgan's design. More complex body panels are “superformed”—meaning that they are heated and then automatically shaped in molds—by an external supplier.
Embracing Youth
Another aspect of Morgan's procedures that is also modern—and perhaps even a bit youthful—is its design and development operations. 3D CAD modelling is well established within the company and has been in use for more than a decade. The company now owns five seats of the Catia V5 system from Dassault Systèmes, plus a couple more of the Alias styling package from Autodesk. In addition, additive manufacturing (3D printing) has come in-house within the last year as a prototyping and design verification tool.
Jon Wells, Design ChiefJon Wells, Design Chief Those facts are confirmed by head of design Jon Wells, who is in his late 20s and epitomizes the youthful label. Wells, who has worked his way up to his present position after joining the company soon after graduating university with a degree in automotive engineering, says that the company's design and development team comprises of 13 people including four specialist CAD engineers. With only a couple of exceptions, none are beyond their 30s in age. Total Morgan workforce, by the way, is a little over 180.
The company's exploitation of modern technologies is absolutely necessary because whatever the appearance of its cars, it is not exempt from requirements to meet current emissions and crash resistance standards. “We have got to evolve the product to ensure compliance,” he says.
Nor can the company ignore the need to get new products to market within increasingly compressed timescales. “Even though we are making a luxury product, missing a deadline can have a serious impact on sales,” he says.
On that count, he says that the company now maintains a product development process that has seen it complete around half a dozen major projects—including concepts, derivatives of existing models or completely new vehicles—in the last five years, as well as introduce six new engines over the last 10 years.
“For 13 people that is quite a lot,” he says.
Three Families of Vehicles
The company's product portfolio currently comprises three main families of vehicles—those with three-wheels, its traditional four-wheel vehicles and its Aero range of supercars. The first two categories use steel chassis and the last aluminum. The three-wheelers are the only ones that can currently be sold in the U.S. because they are classed as motorcycles, and as such do not need to comply with airbag regulations. One invisible difference between the three-wheelers and their four-wheeled counterparts is that their chassis are fabricated from tubular rather than plate material. Nevertheless, there is nothing parochial about the appeal of the cars—some 70% of Morgan vehicles are sold outside of the UK.
However, a degree of patience is still required on the part of customers. The lead-time from placing an order to receiving a vehicle is currently six months. A couple of decades ago, the backlog was measured in years.
More pertinently, Wells says that the company's commitment to its traditional build procedures is immoveable. “None of this replaces the way we build cars,” he says. “It enables us to continue doing so.”
Additive Manufacturing
Take the company's use of additive techniques as an example. The company made its first forays into 3D technology several years ago using external bureau services. It was encouraged to do so, he says, by Hewlett-Packard, which supplies most of the IT hardware Morgan uses. This led to Morgan buying its own machine—a Fortus 250mc from Stratasys—that can make parts in a polymer-like material within an envelope of 10x10x12 inches.
The machine was used on the company's most recent development project; the Aero 8 vehicle due for release in autumn 2015 with a starting price of around £80,000 ($122,000). The entire project, says Wells, took two years to complete; 12 months from initial sketches to first prototype and then another 12 months to full production. The vehicle marks the 15th anniversary of the company's introduction of its Aero “supercar” range and is, in many respects, the most advanced vehicle that Morgan has ever produced. Its aluminum chassis is “the stiffest” so far, it has all-round wishbone suspension and the exterior body is superformed. It is also the first Morgan car with a “soft top” that can be fully retracted and hidden out of sight so that the vehicle can, if required, look like a genuine “open top” sports car.
The Aero 8 is powered by a BMW 4799CC V8 engine and features a BMW six-speed manual gearbox. It can accelerate from 0-62 mph in 4.5 seconds and has a maximum speed of 170 mph, all while getting 16 mpg in city driving and 32 mpg in highway. CO2 emissions equal 282 grams per kilometer.
Design chief Jon Wells hand made the steering wheel in clay for prototyping with a 3D printer. Design chief Jon Wells hand made the steering wheel in clay for prototyping with a 3D printer. One particular feature of Aero 8 for which the company's in-house additive manufacturing resource was used,was the steering wheel. A handmade clay model was scanned and the resulting digital data used to drive the Fortus machine to produce an additive model of the design. That model was then assessed for its look and feel. After machining it into a few modifications, the prototype was rescanned with the resulting data used to drive manufacture of the molds to produce the final parts. As such, the steering wheel’s design and development process was internal to the company, “No prototype tooling was made outside of Morgan,” Wells says.
He personally made the initial clay model used in the process. Training in that skill was, he says, an integral part of his degree education in automotive design along with modern computerized visualization technologies.
Speed and Accuracy
Elsewhere, though, as Wells' equally young colleague design engineer Tom Morris says, additive manufacturing was also used to fabricate complete models of wing mirrors for new vehicles and to make fixturing that is used on the shop floor to support the assembly process. Wells declined to discuss specific figures, but says he is confident that the use of 3D printing has had a positive effect on build procedures.
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In 2014, the automotive sector significantly outperformed the overall market average for semiconductors. In fact, the automotive market overtook data processing to become the third-largest end market for power semiconductor applications, according to IHS.
(Click to enlarge) PM market composition. Source: IHS(Click to enlarge) PM market composition. Source: IHSBased on information from the IHS Power Management Market Share and Supplier Analysis report, demand for semiconductors by the automotive industry was particularly strong in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and infotainment systems. In the power management semiconductor market, power integrated circuits (ICs) grew faster than traditional power discrete solutions. The automotive power IC category in 2015 is forecast to grow 8%, year over year, while discrete revenue is projected to remain flat during the same time period.
“One strategy that automakers are undertaking to control research and development costs is to develop shared designs, components, engineering, and production platforms, and using the same electronic control units (ECUs) for many different platforms with the same features,” says Jonathan Liao, senior analyst of power semiconductors for IHS. “While over time modern cars have increased in size, suppliers prefer small and interchangeable electronic control units that can fit on various platforms, which help lower overall development costs, and expand the universe of target customers, for an improved return on investment.”
As a result of this approach, automotive power ICs are growing faster than discrete solutions. For example, Texas Instruments – the market leader in voltage regulators -- controlled 8% of voltage regulators used by the automotive industry in 2011 and increased its voltage regulator revenues by 150% by the end of 2014. By comparison, Infineon -- the leading automotive-market supplier of discrete power solutions -- increased its power management revenues, at roughly half of Texas Instruments’ growth rate, during the same time period.
Demand for Luxury Features
Increased consumer demand has caused many luxury car features to find their way into the non-luxury car market, which is causing an increase in overall demand for power ICs. Adaptive cruise control, blind-spot monitoring, connected traffic updates, sophisticated infotainment systems with voice command and other advanced features are being integrated, as both options and upgrades, into mass-produced mid-range vehicles, like the Ford Fusion, which has a suggested price of $22,000. “Features that were originally designed for Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Lexus and other luxury cars have very quickly found their way into the non-luxury market,” Liao says
Several key features will encourage further power IC adoption, including Internet-connected cars, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, autonomous cars, Apple’s CarPlay and Android Auto. For all of these features, application processing speed and software are critical components.
“It is crucial for the ECUs to gather, process and respond to information in real time, for the safety and convenience of the driver,” Liao says. “Sophisticated power management solutions for power-intensive multi-core processors, baseband chipsets and sensor arrays can be implemented much more easily with power ICs.”
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cb|Emailogin / IEEE Aims to Draft Standard for Consumer 3D Printing
« on: September 20, 2017, 10:33:42 AM »
The IEEE P3030 standard will be crafted to define an architectural framework for consumer 3D printing. Included will be descriptions of various domains, definitions of domain abstractions and identification of commonalities between different domains.
3D printing involves unique standards requirements and IEEE P3030 will provide a blueprint for data abstraction, quality, protection and safety. The architectural framework is intended to be a reference model that defines relationships between various domains and common architecture elements, one that addresses industry, regulatory bodies and consumer contingencies.
IEEE will host several workshops on consumer 3D printing to collect input and solicit participation for IEEE P3030. The first workshop will be held during the 2015 IEEE Global High Tech Congress on Electronics (GHTCE) in conjunction with the 17th China Hi-Tech Fair on Nov. 16-21, 2015 in Shenzhen, China.
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cb|GeSHi-mod / Toyota to Cooperate with MIT, Stanford on AI Research
« on: September 20, 2017, 10:31:50 AM »
Toyota Motor Corp. says that it has agreed to cooperate with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Stanford University on artificial intelligent research.
The automaker will invest about $50 million over the next five years to set up a joint research center at each university.
The centers will conduct research on object recognition and situational judgment in various environments, aiming to apply the results of research to the development of self-driving vehicles and advanced industrial robots.
"We believe this research will transform the future of mobility, improving safety, reducing traffic congestion and raising quality of life for everyone," Toyota Senior Managing Officer Kiyotaka Ise is quoted as saying at a press conference. Toyota's development efforts focus on autonomous cars with drivers, Ise says. Toyota plans to launch vehicles using self-driving technologies within two or three years.
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